|Other names:||BCI-540; MKC-231|
|Solubility:||soluble in DMSO and Ethanol|
Coluracetam (BCI-540) is a nootropic drug of the racetam
family.Coluracetam (formerly known as MKC-231) was initially
developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
for Alzheimer's disease.
Coluracetam enhances high-affinity choline uptake which is the
rate-limiting step of acetylcholine synthesis, and is the only
known choline uptake enhancer to currently exist. Studies have
Coluracetam to improve learning impairment on a single oral dose
given to rats which have been exposed to cholinergic neurotoxins.
Subsequent studies have shown that it may induce long-lasting
procognitive effects by changing the choline transporter regulation
Coluracetam also seems to have a bit of a stimulant effect. It
should help to shake off any of the morning dreariness if taken
upon waking and it may produce a nice, comfortable energy boost
that can last well into the day. A number of users have reported
that this is able to help them improve their motivation and ability
to get things done.
Another interesting effect is the apparent enhancement of sounds
and colors. This can be compared to turning up the brightness on a
TV or computer screen, with sounds become fuller and richer.
Of the studies cited done on adult rats, the dosing schedule ranged
anywhere from 1mg/kg up to 10mg/kg in (per day) . At the high end
of that range, the dosing (accounting for Allometric scaling) in an
average adult human would be equivalent to 2.9mg/kg; this would
work out to 203.5mg/day for someone of an average weight.
BrainCells Inc. also recently concluded Phase 2A trials of
Coluracetam, under the name BCI-540, where they administered up to
80mg three times per day for Major Depressive Disorder in adult
humans (or 1.14mg/kg in an average weight human); 36% of
participants showed improvements in their scores on two tests for
|Description||White crystalline powder, odorless||Conform|
|Solubility||Easily soluble in water, unsoluble in ethanol||Conform|
|Solution clarity and color||Solution should be clear and colorless||Conform|
|Related substances||5'CMP 0.3%|
Total other impurity
|Loss on drying||≤6.0%||1.3%|
|Assay (on dried basis)||≥99.0%||99.8%|
|Pramiracetam||Choline Bitartrate||Memantine HCL|
|Oxiracetam||Coluracetam(MKC 231)||PRL-8-53 HCL|
|Pikamilone sodium salt||Fladrafinil||Rivastigmine|
|2-Dimethylaminoethanol (+)-bitartrate salt/DMAE/ L-Bitartrate||Hordenine HCl||Sulbutiamine|
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1. Legal status in the United States
Adrafinil is easily available from supplement shops in the USA
while Modafinil requires a prescription. That’s to say, adrafinil,
unlike Modafinil, is not regulated in the United States of America
and may privately be purchased without the need of a doctor’s
2. Side effects comparison
The side effects of Modafinil are similar to those listed for
Adrafinil. Here we discover that Modafinil is far safer than
Adrafinil for in a long period. The explanation for this is simple
that Modafinil is not metabolized in the liver in the same way that
Adrafinil is. Actually, when Adrafinil reaches your liver, the
enzymes present actually convert this drug into Modafinil. It is
this conversion process which puts stress on the organ and may lead
to hepatoxicity. Because Modafinil does not get converted in the
same manner, it does not come with the same risk of side effects.
Consequently, Modafinil may be safer than Adrafinil in the long
3. Potency and speed
Adrafinil is first metabolized into modafinil in the liver.
However, the metabolite takes around thirty minutes to one hour to
accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream when taken orally
before eating anything. Because of the additional processing,
Adrafinil takes longer time to take effect than Modafinil.
Aniracetam is a Nootropic supplement which was developed in the
1970’s by the Hoffman-La Roche
(Belgium) company. This supplement is also part of a class known as
Racetams, which are particularly
noted for their ability to help increase and improve a number of
cognitive processes. Aniracetam also
exhibits anxiolytic properties and enhances mood alongside memory
and focus. This supplement has
been well-studied for a number of years and is known to be
generally very well-tolerated with minor side
effects and a very low level of toxicity. However, before embarking
on a supplementation program with
Aniracetam powder it can be helpful to understand what the benefits
are, how this supplement actually
works, potential stacks, side effects, etc.
The main benefits of Aniracetam are related to improved mental
performance. This includes an increase
in memory and possibly even enhanced learning capacity. This may
actually occur differently in each
person; some will see strong effects and begin remembering
everything while others may just simply begin remembering small and subtle details.